Welcome to “Call it out,” the Ontario Human Rights Commission’s eCourse on racism, racial discrimination, and human rights. Let’s get started.
Let’s start with a question. Has anybody in your life experienced racism or racial discrimination? More than just prejudice or bigotry.
Racism is more common in Canada than most people think. In fact, 40% of racialized people in Ontario who were surveyed by the Ontario Human Rights Commission in 2017 report experiencing discrimination because of race or colour, in the last 5 years.
Many people say “No” because they may not be aware of what racism means or think that it’s just about individual prejudices or beliefs. In fact, 40% of racialized people in Ontario who were surveyed by the Ontario Human Rights Commission in 2017 report experiencing discrimination because of race or colour in the last 5 years.
This course has 3 sections. In the first section, we will cover the history of racism in Canada. In the second section, we will talk about the forms that racism and racial discrimination can take in people’s lives. In the final section, we will talk about ways to identify and address racial discrimination in your life. At the end of this eCourse you will be able to:
- Begin to recognize the historical implications and ongoing legacy of racism in Canada;
- Name elements of the Ontario Human Rights Code and the different levels of racism and types of racial discrimination;
- Identify race-based discrimination and harassment in the workplace.
Section 1: Roots of Racism
Introduction to Section 1
Let’s stop in on Florencia and Dev, two co-workers talking in the office boardroom.
You hear Steve got promoted to human resources manager?
I thought you were next in line for a promotion.
I should be. I’ve got the skills, the experience…
Yeah, it’s surprising.
I wasn’t surprised at all. I don’t think I have the right “look” to be a manager here.
No? I think you look professional.
Come on. I know I have the right shoes, but I’m saying II don’t think I have the right look to be a manager at this company.
Experience and skills have nothing to do with getting a promotion around here.
I never thought about that.
Most people never do.
A Nation of Immigrants
The reality is that racism has been around a long, long time. It’s deeply rooted in Canada’s colonial past. The effects of the inequality and the trauma that racialized people faced in the past still linger in modern society. This is especially evident with social and economic differences.
Canada is a nation of immigrants, and that’s how we became one of the most diverse countries in the world. Step back and think about it; unless you are an Indigenous person, you or your family were immigrants at one point.
Consider the two following questions:
- Did my ancestors/I immigrate from another part of the world?
- If so, when did they/you arrive?
It doesn’t matter if you arrived in Canada yesterday or many years ago. As a Canadian, you inherit the legacy and the history of racism of the generations who came before you.
History of Racism in Canada
Not everyone who wanted to build a life here in Canada was welcome.
Between 1628 and the 1800s, 3,000 people of African ancestry who were enslaved in the United States were brought to Canada and forced to live here in slavery. Slavery is one of Canada’s best kept secrets. While Canada was also the destination for the Underground Railroad, generations of African Canadians faced overt discrimination in employment, housing, schools, churches, restaurants, hospitals and public transportation. The last segregated school in Ontario didn’t close until 1964.
Because of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, more people are now aware that institutions and governments subjected First Nations people to unspeakable treatment. From 1886 to 1996, 150,000 First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children were snatched from their families and forced to attend residential schools, where they endured isolation, denigration and abuse. The trauma of residential schools and the “60’s scoop” has been passed down from generation to generation. It’s a legacy that is still being felt today.
While Canada opened its doors wide to settlers from the United Kingdom and Western Europe, it was not so welcoming to other groups. From 1881 to 1884, 17,000 Chinese labourer s came to work on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Once it was completed, costing many workers their lives, Canada introduced a series of “head-taxes” that applied only to Chinese immigrants. After collecting $23 million in head-taxes, from 1923 to 1947 Canada shut the door to Chinese immigrants.
South Asian People
Canada welcomed British subjects, but not people who sailed on the Komagata Maru. In 1914, 376 Sikh, Hindu and Muslim passengers were not permitted to land in Vancouver. The ship was forced to return to India, where 19 men were shot and killed, and many more were imprisoned.
Discriminatory immigration policies applied to would-be immigrants on the east coast. In 1939, Canada turned away the MS St. Louis, an ocean-liner carrying 908 Jewish refugees. Forced back to Europe, one-quarter of the passengers later died in the Holocaust.
During World War II, the Canadian government forced 20,000 Japanese people – 75% who were Canadian citizens – into internment camps. Their homes, fishing boats and businesses were confiscated. When the war ended, 4,000 people were deported to Japan.
After the war, Canada continued with its preferred list of immigrants. That list favoured immigrants from the United Kingdom and Western Europe, and excluded people from racialized countries in Asia, Africa, Latin American and the Caribbean. People of European heritage were believed to be better suited culturally to populate Canada, and better able to adjust to the climate. It wasn’t until 1976 that Canada introduced a fairer immigration policy with the point system.
The Impact of Racial Discrimination Today
Racialized people have faced major disadvantages -- culturally, socially, economically, and even politically -- because of discrimination. This history of racial discrimination and disadvantage continues to affect racialized people today. We will look at a couple of the social and economic impacts that are felt in present day Canada.
Economic Impacts of Racism
Subtle and systemic racial discrimination are still deeply embedded in many institutional cultures, policies, practices, and procedures. This becomes more apparent when we look at employment trends. Youths aged 15 to 24 who are not racialized have an unemployment rate of 16%. Youths who are racialized have a much tougher time finding jobs, with an unemployment rate of 23% On top of that, racialized people are disproportionately likely to be working in low wage jobs.
Of people living in poverty who are aged 25 to 64, racialized people are much more likely to have a university certificate or degree. In fact, 32% of racialized people living in poverty have a high level of education, compared to 13% for non-racialized people. Couple this with the fact that 22% of racialized people live in poverty - twice the rate of non-racialized people - and it becomes apparent that the impacts of racial discrimination are still being felt today.
Social Impacts of Racism
The modern social impacts of racial discrimination are readily event when you examine Japanese Canadians after World War II. After having their homes and businesses confiscated, the formerly strong Japanese Canadian communities struggled. The generation known as the “Sansei’ or the third generation grew up in mostly white communities, and many never learned to speak Japanese. Many never learned about their culture and values. Families were forced to relocate from their homes on the west coast and were scattered across the country.
The Evolution of the Ontario Human Rights Code
Canadian history includes some ugly chapters where racism and racial discrimination made life-and-death differences for many people. At the same time, there have always been people with the courage to speak out against racial discrimination and to force change. Let’s look at one of the main tools used to combat racial discrimination: the Ontario Human Rights Code.
The efforts of labour and civil rights activists gained momentum after the war. They were motivated by a range of factors including the horrors of the Jewish holocaust and World War II war crimes committed in Europe and Asia. Another force motivating activists was the Black civil rights movement in the United States, decolonization and self-determination movements in the global South and among First Nations communities, and Canada’s role in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Ontario’s human rights legislation has changed over the decades:
- “1940s”: Ontario’s Racial Discrimination Act of 1944 prohibited publishing, displaying, or broadcasting any indication of discrimination based on race or creed, and outlawed “White Only” and “No Dogs or Jews Allowed” signs in Toronto.
- “1950s”: In 1951, prompted by activists like African Canadian war veteran Hugh Burnett, Premier Leslie Frost introduced the Fair Employment Practices Act, and in 1952, the Fair Accommodation Practices Act. These two Acts were the model for the Ontario Human Rights Code.
- “1960s”: In 1961, the Ontario Human Rights Commission was created and in 1962, the Ontario Human Rights Code was introduced. This new code would provide the most comprehensive human rights protections in Canada.
The Code first prohibited discrimination in services, facilities, public accommodation, employee, and trade union membership, on the grounds of race, creed, colour, nationality, ancestry and place of origin. Since then, other grounds have been added.
The Ontario Human Rights Code ensures that every person in Ontario has the right to be free from racial discrimination and harassment. This includes the right to be protected from racial discrimination in five areas of our lives called social areas:
- Services, goods, and facilities like restaurants and public libraries;
- Housing, such as apartments or co-ops;
- Membership in trade and vocational associations, like unions or professional organizations.
While the Code refers specifically to race, it prohibits discrimination on several race-related grounds including colour, ethnic origin and ancestry, place of origin, citizenship and creed.
The experience of discrimination can also include Code grounds that intersect with race, like sex, age, and disability, or with gender expression, gender identity, family status, or sexual orientation. For example, a young, Black male may have a different experience than an older black woman with a physical disability.
Now that you've learned about the history of Racism in Canada, answer the following questions.
True or False? Racial discrimination that happened in the past has no impact on racialized people today.
Take a moment to consider your answer. When you are ready, continue reading to get the correct answer.
The correct answer is B. False.
True or False? Racialized people are disproportionately likely to live in poverty.
Take a moment to consider your answer. When you are ready, continue reading to get the correct answer.
The correct answer is A. True.
True or False? Canada has always welcomed immigrants of all races and every country.
Take a moment to consider your answer. When you are ready, continue reading to get the correct answer.
The correct answer is B. False.
Section 2: Race, Racism and Racial Discrimination
Introduction to Section 2
Let’s check in on Dev and Florencia, who are discussing an upcoming meeting.
“How racist are you?”
Who are you calling racist?
That’s the opening question for tomorrow’s training. Are you coming?
I don’t know… I’m thinking of taking a sick day.
It’s not that I don’t think it’s important, but after Steve got that promotion over me… and everyone gets so uncomfortable talking about racism.
But that’s how we all get comfortable. We talk about it.
What is Race?
How comfortable are you talking about racism? Would you recognize racism when it happens? How about racial discrimination? To start, let’s go through the following race-related terms: Race, racialization, racism, racial discrimination. They may sound the same, but their meanings are not.
Earlier, we discussed how the Ontario Human Rights Code prohibits discrimination because of a person’s race. But that brings up a good question. What does race mean? If you were asked to explain race, what would you say? A) Race is biological. It is related to inherent, physical characteristics such as skin tone, hair type, or facial features, and is conceived to be based in reality or B) Race is a social construct that varies over time and place. It is a term that classifies people into groups based on physical differences which society chooses to emphasize.
The correct answer is B. Race is a social construct. There is absolutely no legitimate scientific basis for racial classification, and don’t believe anyone who says otherwise. Now that you know race is a social construct, you might be curious about how it is constructed. That process is called racialization.
Racialization involves connecting traits and attributes to people based on perceptions about their race. All of the following features could be used to racialize a person:
- Hair Textures
- Manner of Speech
In Canada, the dominant group is connected to European culture. So European religious beliefs, names, foods, hairstyles, and clothes are viewed as the norm. When people are evaluated by being compared to the dominant group, which defines what it means to be ‘Canadian’, traits that are not European are too often deemed to be ‘abnormal’ or of ‘less worth.’
Making assumptions about people based on perceived traits is known as stereotyping. Stereotyping involves using social categories such as race, colour, ethnic origin, creed, etc. to acquire, process, or recall information about others.
Stereotyping is one of the main ways people are treated differently in everyday life. We can just turn on the TV to see how people are stereotyped. Who are depicted as drug dealers? Members of organized crime? As terrorists?
The flip side of racialization is called “white privilege,” and involves treating whiteness as the norm. This can lead to consequences for people who are not white. White privilege disadvantages racialized people in many ways. For example, members of the dominant culture are rarely seen as "foreign” – they are less likely to have to explain where they come from, even if they are new arrivals. They are also less likely to be seen as a threat by shopkeepers when out shopping, are more likely to be depicted positively in the media, and are more likely to be considered a ‘good fit’ for a job without having to explain or show their abilities. We’ve gone through the meaning of race and the process of racialization. Now let’s consider racism and racial discrimination.
Racism vs Racial Discrimination
Do you know the difference between “racism” and “racial discrimination”?
Many people think they mean the same thing but there are very important differences. Let’s take a closer look at these concepts.
Let’s talk about “racism” first.
- a social phenomenon
- about ideology and inherent superiority
- about unconsciously held beliefs
- embedded in institutional systems
- about economic, social, political or institutional power
Racism can exist in an individual’s attitudes and beliefs, and in organizational practices. It can be deeply embedded in institutional systems like education. It’s important to remember that racism is connected to power, or the ability to act on beliefs in meaningful ways that have an impact on people.
How Racism OperatesRacism can occur at three levels:
- The Individual or interpersonal level, which includes “everyday racism” that happens with speech, glances or actions;
- The institutional or systemic level, involving organizations like governments and the education or justice system. Systemic racism can be unintentional. It is often caused by hidden biases in policies, practices and procedures that result in unequal opportunities and outcomes for people based on race. For example, a government adopts economic or public housing policies that, even though unintended, relocates and concentrates racialized or Indigenous peoples away from the city’s economic center and into areas with fewer resources, transportation, and job opportunities. As a result, neighbourhood schools become increasingly racially segregated.
- The societal level, which involves all of a society’s institutions – political, economic, and social – as well as a society’s dominant culture or ideology. Societal racism is often popularly expressed and ingrained through widely held, everyday stereotypes or prejudices. We see a lot of this in the media.
Racial discrimination is a legally prohibited act. It happens when any distinction, conduct or action, whether intentional or not, is based on a person’s race and has the effect of imposing burdens not imposed upon others. Racial discrimination could happen when someone acts on racist beliefs and attitudes in areas covered by the Code, such as employment, services, and housing. To be considered racial discrimination under the Code, it has to be more likely than not that race was one factor in the adverse treatment experience.
Now that you have the definitions, let’s learn about some different types of racial discrimination from personal experiences. These examples are based on real-life situations. Names of people involved have been changed..
Fatima at the Bus Stop
This is Fatima. She is in line to buy bus tickets .
As she waits, she overhears two employees talking to each other about her.
Here comes trouble.
I know what you mean. People like her are ruining everything.
Fatima speaks up.
Is there some sort of problem?
Why don’t you just go back where you came from, okay?
I was born here...
That was an uncomfortable exchange to be sure, but could this be considered racial discrimination?
This harassment in a service could be linked to her creed and gender. In fact, Islamophobia is a new and rapidly increasing type of racial harassment. Under the Code, racial harassment may also include: - Epithets, slurs, or jokes; - Name calling or nicknames; - Cartoons or graffiti; - Ridiculing because of race-based characteristics, religious dress, etc; - Or being singled out for teasing, jokes, or comments based on race, ancestry, place of origin, or ethnic origin. Because this incident occurred in the process of receiving a service it could fall under the Code.
Desmond and the Flu Shot
This is Desmond. He’s come for a flu shot at the walk-in clinic.
Next… Health card please.
Here you go.
You need to renew your card..
Oh, man. Really?
Hearing this, the White woman in line behind Desmond has a realization.
Uh oh. My health card expired 2 weeks ago.
There is a place you can get it renewed down the street. They’ll have the forms for you there.
Oh, okay. Thanks.
Next…. Health card please.
As Desmond leaves, the woman in line behind him steps forward.
Sorry, my health card is expired. But just by a little bit.
Hmmm. I’ll make an exception. But get it updated, okay?
Desmond wasn’t treated particularly rudely, but could this be considered racial discrimination?
It may seem innocent enough, but selectively applying rules like this may be a form of “everyday racism” and could amount to racial discrimination under the Code. What’s happening here with Desmond is pretty subtle, but racial discrimination isn’t always obvious, and doesn’t have to be intentional. Remember that in human rights law, Desmond’s race only has to be one factor or reason for the differential treatment, and the evidentiary standard is, “on a balance of probabilities’. Everyone is entitled to equal treatment in services.
Monique at the Mall
This is Monique. She just got a new job and so she bought some new work clothes.
As Monique leaves the store, she is stopped by a security guard.
Hold on there. I need to have a look in your bags.
What’s the problem?
Show me what’s in the bags, please.
I’ve got the receipts. Here, have a look.
I saw you shopping in the lingerie department, but there’s no lingerie in these bags. Where are you hiding it?
You think I’m stealing?!
It’s best to cooperate. You can come with me to the security office and I’ll call the police.
While we’re there, call your supervisor for me.
Could the security guard’s actions be racial discrimination?
The security guard’s actions could be racial profiling if Monique’s racial background was a factor -- real or perceived -- in his decision to stop and search her. Racial profiling is about actions that are taken for reasons of safety, security, or public protection. It can occur when actions are taken based on stereotypical beliefs about race, colour, creed, or other race-related grounds, and when those actions result in singling out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. What other factors could compound racial profiling in this case? What if the police were called and the responding officer received instructions that included the message, “ADULT FML for SHOPLIFTING”.
Anne at the Bakery
This is Anne. She works at a bakery.
While working in the kitchen, Anne is approached by her White co-worker, David.
Anne, I have to pop out and mail something. Can you watch the cash register?
I’m actually super busy right now. Can you ask Ranpreet?
Well I think the boss doesn’t like having people with you know, (quieter) a turban, (now normal) up front. She says the customers don’t like it. Plus he has a bit of an accent…
What did you just say?!
Could this interaction between Anne and Steve be a type of racial discrimination?
At least two types of racial discrimination could be happening here. The first is known as an “adverse impact” situation because staff who have racialized characteristics such as facial hair, religious headwear, or other markers of identity such as an accent are not being given the same privileges as other staff. This could also be a poisoned work environment. Did you notice the poster with “Go Home” scrawled across the face of the Black hockey player, or the drawing of a banana? Even if the graffiti isn’t directed at a particular member of staff, a person of any racial group could experience a poisoned environment. Every employer, landlord, or service provider is responsible for ensuring an environment that is free from these types of behaviours and policies, even if no one objects.
Hank and the Job Opening
This is Hank. He is a Manager and is reviewing job applications with his assistant.
Alright, I’ve narrowed it down to these three candidates. I’ve got their resumes here.
What have we got?
Okay, first up we’ve got Zhou An Lin.
Is that Joanne Lynne or Joe Allen?
Sorry. It’s Zhou. Z-H-O-U.
Hank looks over the resume.
You can see there, she’s got pretty good experience, and basically all the skills we want.
(unconvinced): Hmmm. Alright. I’ll think about it. Who else do we have?
Okay, this one is Martell King.
Again, Hank looks over the resume
He was really good in the phone screening. Good soft skills. What do you think?
Hmmm. Well… Look, you know me - I’m happy to hire anyone. But some of our biggest clients are a little… old school. I don’t want to hire somebody who’s maybe going to cost us an account. He might just not be the right fit.
Okay, the last one is Becky Winters. Basically the same deal. Relevant experience, seems pretty sharp.
Hank looks over the resume, but this time with more interest.
Hmmm, okay. Well, let’s bring this Becky in for an interview. If it doesn’t work then we’ll figure something else out.
It doesn’t seem that Hank has really said anything negative about any of the candidates, but could Hank’s actions still be a form of racial discrimination?
Hank’s behaviour here seems subtle, but could still be considered to be racial discrimination. What may be happening is systemic discrimination. Systemic discrimination is about patterns of behaviour, policies or practices that are part of an organization’s social or administrative structure, that create barriers for racialized people. In the workplace, systemic discrimination often includes a pattern of discriminatory behaviour across the organization that the organization fails to address. Systemic discrimination can include:
- Excluding racialized people from formal or informal networks;
- Not giving equal chances for training or development to racialized people;
- Managers treating racialized people differently;
- Assigning less desirable duties or jobs to racialized people;
- Seeing racialized people as confrontational or insubordinate when normal differences of opinion arise;
- Seeing normal behavior as aggressive when a racialized person is involved;
- Penalizing a racialized person for not getting along with others at work, when discriminatory attitudes or behaviour are causing the tension. Systemic racial discrimination is also often the result of policies and procedures, or decision-making structures and processes, that, even if not intended, disadvantage or exclude racialized or Indigenous peoples.
Shayla Calls 911
This is Shayla. She just called 911 and asked them to come to her Grandfather’s unit at a First Nations housing co-op, for a medical emergency.
They should be here any second.
The police are the first to arrive.
In here. I think my Grandfather’s had a stroke.
Sir. What’s your name? Can you look at me, sir? Ma’am, did he take any substances?
Can you understand me? English?
He can’t seem to talk.
It’s okay. Calm down, ma’am. EMS will be right here. Where are they?!
The officer calls into dispatch.
Dispatch, I’ve got an elderly male here, non-responsive, possibly intoxicated. Let’s have an officer at emerg when we arrive, in case we have a problem. Patient is a big guy.
Could the way the Officer dealt with this be considered racial discrimination?
Shayla’s grandfather lives in a First Nations housing co-operative, and the police officer assumes -- based on stereotypes -- that intoxication may be involved, or that Shayla or her Grandfather could create problems at the hospital.
Now that you've learned about the Types of Racial Discrimination, answer the following questions.
Select the correct type of discrimination for each incident.
Question 1 of 3
When a person uses racial slurs or epithets at the workplace.
- Racial Harassment
- Systemic Discrimination
The correct answer is A. Racial Harassment.
Question 2 of 3
When a company routinely offers better opportunities for advancement only to its non-racialized employees.
- Racial Harassment
- Systemic Discrimination
The correct answer is B. Systemic Racism.
Question 3 of 3
When an emergency first responder immediately assumes that a First Nations person doesn't have a medical condition when arriving at the scene.
- Racial Harassment
- Systemic Discrimination
The correct answer is C. Stereotyping.
Section 3: Approaches to Combating Racial Discrimination
Introduction to Section 3
Racism is a subject that many people don’t feel comfortable discussing. Learning to recognize racism and how racial discrimination operates is one way to make the discussion easier, and from there, to put measures in place to make sure that everyone has a safe and healthy workplace that is free from racial harassment and discrimination.
Before we finish let’s stop in for a final visit with Dev and Florencia.
How was the training?
Well, the training gave me a lot of insight into the promotion you didn’t get. There are many different ways people can be advantaged - and disadvantaged - based on their race alone, or in combination with their age, creed, gender or other Code grounds. It wasn’t so obvious to me before, even though it was happening right in front of my face. But where do we start to make it all stop?
Part of that job is figuring how to get to core of the organization - its policies, its practices, the way decisions are made...
And organizational culture. Like the portraits hanging in the boardroom (sigh).
The Ontario Human Rights Commission has resources that could help. Like its Policy Primer to help develop human rights policies and procedures.
And “Count me in” on collecting human rights-based data.
Great! Any other ideas?
Yeah. An eCourse just on combatting racial discrimination.
For now, how about highlighting some approaches that organizations should take to help combat racism?
Combatting Racism and Racial Discrimination as an Organization
Organizations can combat racism and racial discrimination by reviewing policies, practices, and decision-making for systemic racial discrimination. Sometimes racially discriminatory policies are in place simply because nobody bothered to go back and review old, outdated policies.
Another way to address racism and racial discrimination is to review organizational culture such as patterns of communication, interpersonal relations, and social networks. When lines of communications are open and equal for all, it creates an environment that helps promote inclusiveness.
Additionally, collecting and analyzing numerical data can help fight racism and racial discrimination. Sometimes racially discriminatory tendencies only become apparent when you get an objective look at the numbers within your organization. For example, a company may learn there are few racialized people in leadership positions.
One common approach to combatting racial discrimination is an anti-racism strategy. These strategies actively acknowledge and proactively seek to eliminate racism and racial discrimination. This approach could include:
- A comprehensive anti-racism and anti-discrimination vision statement, with a strong anti-racism policy and procedures, to ensure accountability;
- Monitoring. Data collection should be undertaken where an organization believes that discrimination, systemic barriers, or the perpetuation of historical disadvantage may potentially exist.
- Implementation strategies with clear and measurable goals and objectives. Anti-racism requires fundamental changes to the structures and systems of organization.
- Ongoing evaluation is needed to ensure that the anti-racism program is effective.
Now that you've learned about the Types of Racial Discrimination, answer the following question.
Question 1 of 1
Which of the following are elements that could be included when developing an anti-racism strategy
- An anti-racism/discrimination vision statement and policy
- Monitoring - for example, data collection
- Implementing strategies
- Personal information
The correct answers are A. An anti-racism/discrimination vision statement and policy, B. Monitoring - for example, data collection and C. Implementing strategies.
Check What You Learned
Now that you’ve gone through the module, you should be able to recognize the historical implications and ongoing legacy of racism in Canada, name elements of the Ontario Human Rights Code and the different types of racism and racial discrimination, and identify race-based discrimination and harassment in the workplace.
Question 1 of 5
True or False: If an employee discriminates against a co-worker because of race, organizations are responsible for the actions its employees or agents take in the course of their duties, whether or not the employer knew of the discriminatory action.
The correct answer is A. True. This responsibility is called vicarious liability. The organization as well as the “directing minds” – people who are involved in decision-making - may be vicariously liable.
Question 2 of 5
True or False: What happened in the past, stays in the past. Historical racial discrimination has little or no impact on racism today.
The correct answer is B. False. This is a very important point. The impact of past discriminatory experiences of racialized people still affects others’ lives today. Historical disadvantage created by past discrimination persists today, and subtle and systemic racial discrimination are still embedded in many institutional cultures and policies, practices, and procedures.
Question 3 of 5
True or False: Racial discrimination is against the law.
The correct answer is A. True. The Ontario Human Rights Code prohibits racial discrimination that occurs in protected social areas.
Question 4 of 5
True or False: Organizations have a responsibility to address and prevent racism. They can do this by making sure their practices, policies and programs do not result in systemic discrimination. But employers are still liable for racial discrimination, even if there has been no complaint.
The correct answer is A. True. It’s completely unacceptable for organizations and institutions to ignore or fail to address human rights matters, whether or not a complaint has been raised. An organization violates the Code where it directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, infringes the Code.
Question 5 of 5
True or False: A Black student interviews for an internship position, and the interviewing committee refers to him in emails as a "Ghetto dude". This is stereotyping.
The correct answer is A. True. Stereotyping could involve using social categories such as race, colour, ethnic origin, creed , etc. to acquire, process or recall information about others.
Congratulations! You’ve completed the course. It isn’t always easy to talk about racism and racial discrimination, but if nothing is said, nothing ever changes. Talking about racism means being honest about our past and understanding the intergenerational trauma and ongoing impact of historical and modern racial discrimination. It means understanding how racism operates, and knowing what checks and balances must be in place to counter the systemic effects of race-based discrimination. Talking about racism is a first step in challenging it. Doing something about racial discrimination is the next. This course is the start of that journey.
These resources will help you to fight racism and racial
discrimination in Ontario. For more information on your rights and
responsibilities under the Code review these OHRC policies,
including: - Policy and guidelines on racism and racial
discrimination - Policy on preventing discrimination based on mental
health disabilities and addictions - Policy on preventing
discrimination based on creed - Count me in! Collecting human rights
based data - A policy primer: Guide to developing human rights
policies and procedures There are also plain-language brochures on
each of these subjects. Members of the Ontario public service may
also contact workplace discrimination and harassment prevention
services or the anti-racism directorate. Additional resources are
available at the link on the screen.